Das Bundestagswahlrecht regelt die Wahl der Mitglieder des Deutschen. Okt. Nachrichten · Politik · Deutschland · Bundestagswahl . stellten sich zur Wahl, rund mehr als bei der Bundestagswahl Die Wahl zum Deutschen Bundestag fand am September statt.
The Nationale Volksarmee was eventually dissolved with the reunification of Germany in Compulsory conscription was suspended — but not completely abolished as an alternative — in January It had a strength of , military and , civilian personnel.
The Navy was tasked and equipped to defend the Baltic Approaches , to provide escort reinforcement and resupply shipping in the North Sea and to contain the Soviet Baltic Fleet.
During this time the Bundeswehr did not take part in combat operations. However, there were a number of large-scale training and operational casualties.
The first such incident was in June , when 15 paratroop recruits were drowned in the Iller river, Bavaria. At the time of reunification, the German military boasted a manpower of some , soldiers.
As a result, the Bundeswehr was significantly reduced, and the former East German Nationale Volksarmee NVA was disbanded, with a portion of its personnel and material being absorbed into the Bundeswehr.
About 50, Volksarmee personnel were integrated into the Bundeswehr on 2 October This figure was rapidly reduced as conscripts and short-term volunteers completed their service.
A number of senior officers but no generals or admirals received limited contracts for up to two years to continue daily operations.
Personnel remaining in the Bundeswehr were awarded new contracts and new ranks, dependent on their individual qualification and experience. Many were granted and accepted a lower rank than previously held in the Volksarmee.
In general, the unification process of the two militaries — under the slogan " Armee der Einheit " or "Army of Unity" — has been seen publicly as a major success and an example for other parts of the society.
With the reduction, a large amount of the military hardware of the Bundeswehr , as well as of the Volksarmee , had to be disposed of. Most of the armoured vehicles and fighter jet aircraft the Bundesluftwaffe — due to reunification — was the only air force in the world that flew both Phantoms and MIGs were dismantled under international disarmament procedures.
Many ships were scrapped or sold, often to the Baltic states or Indonesia the latter received 39 former Volksmarine vessels of various types.
With reunification, all restrictions on the manufacture and possession of conventional arms that had been imposed on the Bundeswehr as a condition for West German rearmament were lifted.
It was formed after German citizens had to be rescued in Rwanda by Belgian Para-Commandos as the Special Commands of the Federal Police were not capable of operating in a war zone.
A major event for the German military was the suspension of the compulsory conscription for men in In September , the Bundeswehr acknowledged chronic equipment problems that rendered its armed forces "unable to deliver its defensive NATO promises".
Among the problems cited were dysfunctional weapons systems, armored vehicles, aircraft, and naval vessels unfit for immediate service due to a neglect of maintenance, and serious equipment and spare parts shortages.
In May , the German government approved an increase in defense spending, at the time 1. The Dutch 43rd Mechanized Brigade will be assigned to the 1st Panzer Division Bundeswehr of the German army, with the integration starting at the beginning of , and the unit becoming operational at the end of The Dutch-German military cooperation is seen as an example for setting up a European defense union.
With the growing number of missions abroad it was recognized that the Bundeswehr required a new command structure. Medical support was reorganised with the establishment of the Joint Medical Service.
The combat forces of the Army are organised into three combat divisions and participate in multi-national command structures at the corps level.
The Air Force maintains three divisions and the Navy is structured into two flotillas. The Joint Support Service and the Joint Medical Service are both organized in four regional commands of identical structure.
All of these services also have general commands for training, procurement, and other general issues. Inspector of the Army , Inspector of the Air Force , Inspector of the Navy and their respective staffs in his or her function as commander-in-chief.
For smaller missions one of the service HQs e. The Bundestag must approve any foreign deployment by a simple majority. The role of the Bundeswehr is described in the Constitution of Germany Art.
Its only active role before was the Katastropheneinsatz disaster control. Within the Bundeswehr , it helped after natural disasters both in Germany and abroad.
After , the international situation changed from East-West confrontation to one of general uncertainty and instability.
Today, after a ruling of the Federal Constitutional Court in the term "defence" has been defined to not only include protection of the borders of Germany, but also crisis reaction and conflict prevention, or more broadly as guarding the security of Germany anywhere in the world.
Since the early s the Bundeswehr has become more and more engaged in international operations in and around the former Yugoslavia , and also in other parts of the world like Cambodia or Somalia.
After the 11 September attacks , German forces were employed in most related theaters except Iraq. Currently 21 January there are Bundeswehr forces in: In support of Allied stabilization efforts in Iraq, the Bundeswehr is also training the new Iraqi forces in locations outside Iraq, such as the United Arab Emirates and Germany.
Since , the Bundeswehr has lost about troops in foreign deployments. German Armed Forces casualties in Afghanistan.
According to the new threat scenario facing Germany and its NATO allies, the Bundeswehr is currently reorganising itself.
For the ground forces it plans to produce Puma infantry fighting vehicle, at least Boxer MRAV , started to introduce a novel land soldier system and a new generation of transportation vehicles and light vehicles, such as the Fennek , and KMW Grizzly.
Further, the German Navy is going to build 4 new F class frigates , 6 new multi-role combat ships dubbed MKS and 6 Type submarines.
The service uniform is theoretically the standard type of Bundeswehr uniform for general duty and off-post activity, but is most associated, however, with ceremonial occasions.
The peaked, visored cap has been replaced by the beret as the most common form of headgear. Dress uniforms featuring dinner jackets or double-breasted coats are worn by officers for various social occasions.
The battle and work uniform consists of Flecktarn camouflage fatigues, which are also worn on field duty.
In practice, they are also used for general duty and off-post at least at barracks where there is also field duty even by others, and for the way home or to the post, and generally regarded as the Heer uniform.
Instead of the beret, they wear the grey "mountain cap". The field uniform is the same, except for the optional metal Edelweiss worn on the forage cap.
The traditional arm-of-service colours appear as lapel facings and as piping on shoulder straps. Generals wear an inner piping of gold braid; other officers wear silver piping.
Lapel facings and piping are maroon for general staff, green for infantry, red for artillery, pink for armour, black for engineers, yellow for communications, dark yellow for reconnaissance and various other colors for the remaining branches.
Combat troops wear green infantry , black armour , or maroon airborne berets. Logistics troops and combat support troops, such as artillery or engineers, wear red berets.
A gold or silver badge on the beret denotes the individual branch of service. The naval forces wear the traditional navy blue, double-breasted coat and trousers; enlisted personnel wear either a white shirt or a navy blue shirt with the traditional navy collar.
White uniforms provide an alternative for summer. The air force service uniform consists of a blue jacket and trousers with a light blue shirt, dark blue tie, and black shoes.
Olive battle dress similar to the army fatigue uniform is worn in basic training and during other field duty. Flying personnel wear wings on their right breast.
Other air force personnel wear a modified wing device with a symbol in its centre denoting service specialisation.
Wings, superimposed over a wreath, in gold, silver, or bronze, depending on rank, are also worn on the service or field cap.
In general, officer ranks are those used in the Prussian and pre German armies. Officer rank insignia are worn on shoulder straps or shoulder boards.
The stars and wreath are gold for general officers. In the case of naval Marine officers, rank is indicated by gold stripes on the lower sleeve of the blue service jacket and on shoulder boards of the white uniform.
Ranks of army and air force enlisted personnel are designated by stripes, chevrons, and "sword knots" worn on rank slides. Naval enlisted rank designations are worn on the upper OR 1—5 or lower OR-6 and above sleeve along with a symbol based on an anchor for the service specialization rating.
Medical personnel of all three services wear a version of the traditional caduceus staff with entwined serpents on their shoulder straps or sleeve.
Women have served in the medical service since From they were also allowed to serve as enlisted personnel and non-commissioned officers in the medical service and the army bands.
In , in a lawsuit brought up by Tanja Kreil , the European Court of Justice issued a ruling allowing women to serve in more roles than previously allowed.
Since they can serve in all functions of service without restriction, but they are not subject to conscription. There are presently around 19, women on active duty  and a number of female reservists who take part in all duties including peacekeeping missions and other operations.
In , Verena von Weymarn became Generalarzt der Luftwaffe "Surgeon General of the Air Force" , the first woman ever to reach the rank of general in the armed forces of Germany.
For women, lower physical performance requirements are required in the basic fitness test, which must be completed at the time of recruitment and later on annually.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For historical armed forces of Germany, see Military of Germany disambiguation.
Military history of Germany. Command and obedience in the Bundeswehr. From to the title Deutsches Heer German Army was the official name of the German land forces.
From to the name of the German land forces was Reichsheer Army of the Realm and from to the name Heer was used. The Heer was formally disbanded in August While the modern German army prefers to distance itself from the World War II era, it still retains certain uniform accessories from that era and before.
For example, the iconic Stahlhelm remains in service, as do the arabesque general collar tab designs. Cufftitle designs used by elite units during World War II now appear on both cuffs.
However already one year after the founding of the Federal Republic of Germany in May and because of its increasing links with the West under German chancellor Konrad Adenauer , the Consultative Assembly of Europe began to consider the formation of a European Defence Community with German participation on 11 August Former high-ranking German Wehrmacht officers outlined in the Himmeroder memorandum a plan for a "German contingent in an international force for the defense of Western Europe.
The officers saw the need for the formation of twelve Panzer divisions and six corps staffs with accompanying Corps troops, as only armored divisions could muster a fighting force to throw back the numerically far superior forces of the Warsaw Pact.
This Defence Ministry forerunner was known somewhat euphemistically as the Blank Office Amt Blank , but explicitly used to prepare for the rearmament of West Germany Wiederbewaffnung.
Plans foresaw the formation of six infantry, four armoured, and two mechanised infantry divisions, as the German contribution to the defense of Western Europe in the framework of a European Defence Community.
The nucleus of army was the so-called V Branch of the Department of Defence. The army saw itself explicitly not as a successor to the defeated Wehrmacht , but as in the traditions of the Prussian military reformers of to and the members of the military resistance during National Socialism; such as the officers which undertook the failed 20 July plot to assassinate Adolf Hitler in Nevertheless, for lack of alternatives the officer corps was made up largely of former Wehrmacht officers.
The first Chief of the Army was the former Wehrmacht General der Panzertruppe Hans Rottiger , who had been involved in the drafting of the Himmeroder memorandum.
The official date of the founding of the army is 12 November when the first soldiers began their service in Andernach. On 1 April , the first conscripts arrived for service in the army.
To achieve this goal existing units were split approximately every six months. However the creation of all twelve divisions did not take place until At the end of the strength of the army was about , men.
The army was equipped at first with American material, such as the M Patton main battle tank. Three corps commands were formed beginning in Also in the "Office for Territorial Defence" was established as the highest Territorial Army authority.
The main function of the Territorialheer was to maintain the operational freedom of NATO forces through providing rear area defence against saboteurs, enemy special forces, and the like.
The development of Soviet tactical nuclear weapons required the development of a new Army structure even before Army Structure I was fully achieved.
To minimize the effects of attacks with tactical nuclear weapons on massed forces, the 28, strong divisions of the Heer were broken up into smaller and more mobile brigades.
These smaller units were also to be capable of self-sustainment on an atomic battlefield for several days, and to be capable of to move quickly from defense and to attack.
The new armoured and mechanized brigades were capable of combined arms combat. Each division was composed of three brigades. The armoured brigades consisted of an armoured infantry battalion, two armoured battalions, an armoured artillery battalion and a supply battalion.
The mechanized brigades consisted of a motorized infantry battalion, two mechanized infantry battalions, an armored battalion, a field artillery battalion and a supply battalion.
The motorized brigades consisted of three motorized infantry battalions, an anti-tank battalion, a field artillery battalion and a supply battalion.
The alpine brigades consisted of three alpine battalions, a mountain artillery battalion and a supply battalion. At the end of the Cold War the German Army fielded 12 divisions with 38 brigades: Nine divisions were grouped into three corps: It was continuously downsized from this point.
The onwards restructuring of the German Army saw it move to a seven division structure — 5 mechanized each with two mechanized brigades , 1 special forces, and one air assault.
In , three Corps still existed, each including various combat formations and a maintenance brigade, as well as the I. The 1st Panzer would have reported to the corps in wartime while the 7th would be posted to the Allied Rapid Reaction Corps.
Corps in time of war the 5th Panzer. The 5th Panzer was formally Division disbanded as of 30 June In peacetime it also commanded the 10th Panzer Division , which was allocated to Eurocorps and which parents the German half of the Franco-German Brigade.
The 1st Mountain Division at Munich was also subordinate to this headquarters. The 14th Panzergrenadier Division also took control of units in Western Germany re-subordinated from the 6th Panzergrenadier Division when it lost its command function.
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